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For example, the identification of Mulu as modern Merv only points to the oasis itself, not the specific location of the ancient town of Mulu.
Likewise, the oasis of Kashgar Shule contained several towns, as it still does, and these are sometimes referred to individually. Literal translations of place-names and products have been placed within single inverted commas as: Some Chinese words have no exact equivalent in English.
Most of them were what we would think of as country towns or provincial capitals. Because the older Wade-Giles system of Romanizing Chinese is still commonly used, the reader will find it in many of the quotes given in my notes.
This is unfortunate, but unavoidable. I have, therefore, included Wade-Giles equivalents within square brackets and in italics after the Pinyin for many names and terms to assist the non-specialist reader.
As I have noted above, I have refrained from adding Chinese character to the translation itself to make it more accessible and readable for non-specialists.
However, the Chinese character for all the major names and terms should be found in the appropriate notes. I would like to add a word of caution to the reader here that the reconstructions are really only reliable back to the period of the Qieyun dictionary completed in CE , as Pulleyblank himself notes on p.
It should also be noted that there were probably significant dialectical differences between the Chinese soldiers and settlers on the northwest frontiers and the inhabitants of the capital.
So, although the reconstructions back to the late 6th century are frequently useful in helping to identify place names, it must be kept in mind that there were undoubtedly phonetic changes over the intervening centuries that we can only guess at.
I have made a number of rather lengthy quotations in the notes. This is because I believe they are of importance, well-stated, and of particular interest.
This material is not being used in any commercial way. However, if any of the authors have objections to my use of so much of their material I hope they will contact me and I will gladly make adjustments.
For the translation itself I have followed the Chinese text according to the Zhonghua Shuju edition of the Hou Hanshu , Shanghai, ; reprint , juan 88 liejuan 78 , pp.
I take full responsibility for all mistakes. I have avoided using Chinese characters and diacritics in the Text itself, so it should all be readable to practically everyone.
Most modern computer programs come with the ability to use Chinese characters but some readers may have to install or enable them in their browser to be able to read the Notes and Appendices properly.
It is freely available to download and use. However, most browsers — even without this font should reproduce most of the text except some accented letters well enough to follow.
In spite of this, some readers may still experience difficulties. However, I believe that most of the notes will be meaningful even if the odd character is missed.
If readers continue to have problems, or need help with a particular passage, please do not contact the Webmaster, but do feel free to contact the author at: Fortunately, however, they remained stable over the Qin and Han periods and a bronze standard measure, dated 9 CE , has been preserved at the Imperial Palace in Beijing.
This has allowed accurate conversions to modern measurements. The li was calculated by Dubs to be In most cases, I have given the exact equivalents to the nearest kilometre based on this measurement, even when the number of li given is obviously an approximation e.
For relatively short distances less than li , I have calculated to the nearest tenth of a kilometre. Most, though not all, of the distances between places given in the Hou Hanshu , which I have been able to check have proved to be surprisingly accurate, especially in areas controlled by the Chinese.
At other times, however, there are what seem to be obvious mistakes in the text. Sometimes this may be because it is not clear which of several alternative routes was used.
Occasionally, especially over longer distances, and in the case of places far from China, the figures given are wildly out.
I have based all other conversions of Chinese measurements on the values calculated by Wan Kuo-ting for the Qin and Han periods as described by A.
XLIX, Livre 3, I have converted distances mentioned in quotes from Western Roman and Greek authors as follows: Section 1 — Historical Background. Wang Mang, after he usurped the Throne [in 9 CE ], demoted their kings to marquesses.
Following this, the Western Regions became resentful, and rebelled. The Xiongnu collected oppressively heavy taxes. The kingdoms were not able to support their demands.
In the middle of the jianwu period [ CE ], they each sent envoys to ask if they could submit to the Middle Kingdom, and to express their desire for a Protector General.
Emperor Guangwu [ CE ], deciding that they had not really come for the sake of the security of the Empire, and that he had no time for outside affairs, flatly refused his consent.
In the meantime, the Xiongnu became weaker. The king of Suoche Yarkand , 8 named Xian, wiped out several kingdoms. During the yongping period [ CE ], the Northern Savages i.
In the sixteenth year [73 CE ], Emperor Ming ordered his generals to lead an expedition north against the Xiongnu.
Yutian Khotan and the other kingdoms all sent sons to serve [the Emperor]. Relations with the Western Regions had been cut for sixty-five years [ CE ] before they were restored.
After that, the Xiongnu sent soldiers to supervise Yiwu Hami. The Mao and Ji Commandants were re-established and, commanding five hundred soldiers, were stationed with the Nearer Jushi tribe within the walls of Gaochang Karakhoja — 70 li or 29 km southeast of Turfan.
The Captain was li km from the town [of Gaochang]. Following this, more than fifty kingdoms presented hostages, and submitted to the Empire.
Previous generations never reached these regions. The Shanjing 41 gives no details on them. No doubt he prepared a report on their customs and investigated their precious and unusual [products].
After this, distant kingdoms [such as] Mengqi and Doule 42 all came to submit, and sent envoys offering tribute. The Imperial Government proclaimed that the post of Protector General should be abolished because these regions were remote, difficult, and dangerous to reach.
From this time, therefore, the Western Regions were abandoned. The Northern Xiongnu immediately took control and united all the kingdoms again.
They [the Northern Xiongnu] raided the frontier with their cooperation, for more than ten years. Several months later the Northern Xiongnu resumed control over the king of the tribe of Further Jushi.
Together they attacked and killed Suo Ban and others. Then they attacked the king of the Nearer [Jushi], forcing him to flee. Shanshan Charkhlik sent an urgent request to Cao Zong for assistance.
Cao Zong therefore requested that troops be sent to attack the Xiongnu, and avenge the outrage against Suo Ban. He wanted to keep forging ahead again in the Western Regions.
However, the Dowager Empress Deng did not give her consent. She merely ordered the establishment of a Lieutenant Colonel at Dunhuang to protect the Western Regions.
A camp of three hundred soldiers was re-established to keep them under control, and they then ended [their rampages].
The Imperial Government was unable to prevent it. After discussions, it was decided to shut the Yumen and Yang frontier-passes 47 to prevent disasters.
In the second yanguang year [ CE ], the Governor of Dunhuang, Zhang Dang presented a report setting out three plans: We should assemble more than 2, officers and soldiers taken from Jiuquan Suzhou and its dependent kingdoms at the Gunlun frontier-pass.
Therefore, 5, soldiers should be sent from Shanshan Charkhlik to restrain the tribe of Further Jushi Jimasa. This is the best plan. If we cannot send an army, a Division Commander with five hundred officers and men supplied with farm draft cattle, grain, and provisions by the four commanderies [of Hexi], should occupy Liuzhong Lukchun.
This is the worst plan. The Imperial Government put this project under consideration. Taizong [ BCE ] was forced to submit to the humiliation of presenting tribute.
Emperor Xiaowu [ BCE ] was indignant about this. He thought deeply to work out long-term strategies. During this expedition, the Black Heads Chinese fell to the north of Langwang and treasure was destroyed in the ravines of Lu Mountain.
The shuttles and reeds of the looms were empty. The Western Regions have, in the course of time, come to make their submission.
Humbly, they are looking to the east, knocking on our frontier gates until they shake. They do not like the Xiongnu and they admire and imitate the Han.
They will inevitably head south to attack Shanshan Charkhlik. If we abandon the latter without help, all the kingdoms will follow them. If that happens, the wealth of the Savages Xiongnu will increase; their audacity and strength will be multiplied; their fearful reputation will cause the Southern Qiang to join them.
Then the four commanderies to the west of the Yellow River will definitely be endangered. Now, when the area west of the Yellow River is endangered; it will be very difficult to assist them.
Expeditions will therefore increase a hundredfold and there will not be enough funds to pay for them. In the discussions, only the extreme remoteness of the Western Regions and the numerous expenses involved have been considered.
There has been no notice taken of the suggestions of earlier generations to follow their hearts and work hard. In addition, the frontier regions are currently not very well prepared to guard and defend themselves.
In the interior commanderies military preparations have not been made. Dunhuang is isolated and in danger.
It is a long way to send for help and return. If we do not help them, there will be nothing to console the officials and people of the interior. In the external regions, we will be unable to make a show of our might before the many barbarian tribes.
The Classics clearly forbid advocating the reduction of the Empire. The Emperor accepted this advice.
From the jianwu period [ CE ] to the yanguang period [ CE ], communications with the Western Regions were cut three times, and then restored.
Following the yangjia period [ CE ], the reputation of the Imperial Court gradually declined. The kingdoms [of the Western Regions] became arrogant and negligent.
They oppressed and attacked each other. In the first yongxing year [ CE ], the king of the tribe of Further Jushi Jimasa again launched a counterattack against the garrison of the military colony.
Although their chiefs had submitted, they were not punished and made to reform, so they became negligent. Now, the events of the jianwu period [ CE ] onward have been revised for this Chapter on the Western Regions, using those that differ from earlier records as reported by Ban Yong at the end of the reign of Emperor An [ CE ].
Section 2 — Geographical Background. The kingdoms of the Western Regions subject to the Interior China stretch more than 6, li 2, km from east to west, and more than 1, li km from south to north.
At the extreme east are the Yumen and Yang frontier-passes. To the west, they stretch to the Congling Pamirs. To the northeast, they border on the Xiongnu and Wusun Issyk-kol and Semirechiye.
To the north and south are high mountains. In the centre is a river [the Tarim]. As for the river [the Tarim], it has two sources: It joins with the river [the Yarkand] coming from the Congling Pamirs , and they flow together to the east.
Leaving Yiwu Hami , and going 1, li km north leads to the fortress of Gaochang Turfan , in the territory of the Nearer Jushi.
These places are the doors of the Western Regions, which is why the Mao and Ji Commandants and their respective functionaries were garrisoned there.
The region of Yiwu Hami is favourable for the five types of grain [rice, two kinds of millet, wheat and beans] , mulberry trees, hemp, and grapes.
Further north is Liuzhong Lukchun. All these places are fertile. How does one go from Shanshan capital near modern Ruoqiang or Charklik and across the Congling Pamirs to emerge in the kingdoms to the west?
There are two routes: The main centre of Jumi the Keriya oasis is Ningmi. It controls 2, households, 7, individuals, and 1, people able to bear arms.
He installed his son as the king of Jumi Keriya. Then he sent an envoy to offer tribute to Han. The Emperor pardoned the crime of [the king of] Yutian Khotan , ordering him to hand back the kingdom of Jumi.
He beheaded several hundred people, and released his soldiers to plunder freely. He replaced the king [of Jumi] by installing Cheng Guo from the family of [the previous king] Xing, and then he returned.
He killed the king and many others. The Maoji Commandant and the Aide of the Western Regions, each sent soldiers to support Ding Xing, who was the son [of the king of Jumi] and had been a hostage with the Emperor, and place him on the throne.
At that time, the population had been reduced to a thousand people. This kingdom borders on Yutian Khotan , which is li km to the west.
Section 4 — The Kingdom of Yutian Khotan. It controls 32, households, 83, individuals, and more than 30, men able to bear arms. At the end of the jianwu period [ CE ], Xian, the powerful and prosperous king of Suoche Yarkand , attacked and annexed Yutian Khotan.
He transferred Yu Lin, its king, to become the king of Ligui. His kingdom became very prosperous after this. From Jingjue Niya northwest, as far as Shule Kashgar , thirteen kingdoms submitted to him.
Meanwhile, the king of Shanshan the Lop Nor region, capital Charklik had also begun to prosper. From then on, these two kingdoms were the only major ones on the Southern Route in the whole region to the east of the Congling Pamirs.
On his way, he passed through Jumi Keriya. When he returned to the frontier region, he informed Ma Da, the Governor of Dunhuang.
Ma Da ordered Wang Jing to make a thorough secret investigation into the affair. Wang Jing first passed through Jumi.
Cheng Guo again said: Now, you should kill Jian because of the crime he is guilty of. Yutian Khotan will certainly agree. Wang Jing was eager to acquire merit and glory for himself and, besides, he believed what Cheng Guo had said to him.
Before reaching Yutian Khotan , he prepared to receive Jian, [then] invited him, and secretly made a plan. Why would the Chief Scribe Wang Jing want to kill me?
When this happened, Jian got up to serve the wine. Wang Jing then ordered his retinue in a menacing tone to seize him but, as none of the officers and soldiers wanted to kill Jian, all the officials suddenly fled.
Why are we still hesitating? The Khotanese Commandant-Leader, 6 Shu Po, then set the camp buildings on fire killing the officials and soldiers.
He climbed the tower and beheaded Wang Jing and hung his head in the marketplace. Shu Po wanted to make himself king, but the people of the country killed him, and put An Guo, the son of Jian, on the throne.
When Ma Da was informed of what had happened, he wanted to put himself in charge of the troops of several commanderies, and head through the frontier regions to attack Yutian Khotan , but Emperor Huan [ CE ] did not allow it.
By then, Shu Po had already been dead for more than a month, so they sent the head of a dead man to Dunhuang without saying what had really happened.
Song Liang was informed of this trickery but, finally, he could not get the troops to go. Encouraged by this, Yutian Khotan became arrogant.
Section 5 — The Kingdom of Xiye Karghalik. It has 2, households, more than 10, people, and 3, men able to bear arms. The inhabitants extract a drug from it that is used on arrow points and kills immediately.
Section 6 — The Kingdom of Zihe Shahidulla. It controls households, 4, people, and 1, men able to bear arms. Section 7 — The Kingdom of Dere.
On the east, it is 3, li 1, km to the residence of the Chief Scribe [at Lukchun]. It is 12, li 5, km from Luoyang. It borders on Zihe Shahidulla , and their way of life is the same.
Now its name has changed to Paizhi [or Paite in some accounts]. Thus, access is blocked on three sides. It is only to the northwest that there is communication by road on firm ground.
This region is hot and humid. It produces lions, rhinoceroses, zebu cattle, peacocks, and giant birds [ostriches]. If you turn north, and then towards the east, riding by horse for more than 60 days, you reach [the old capital of] Anxi Parthia.
They have, in fact, installed a Senior General there to supervise all the small towns. It is 25, li 10, km from Luoyang.
It is several thousand li across. There are several hundred small towns. The households, people, and men able to bear arms are extremely numerous.
In the first zhanghe year [87 CE ], during the reign of Emperor Zhang, this kingdom sent an envoy to offer lions and fuba Persian gazelle.
He wanted to cross it, but the sailors of the western frontier of Anxi Parthia said to him: August 17 , in Cairo, Egypt. View agent, publicist, legal on IMDbPro.
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When envoys from a neighbouring kingdom arrive at their border, they use the courier stations to get to the royal capital, and when they arrive, they give them gold coins.
The king of this country always wanted to send envoys to the Han, but Anxi Parthia , wishing to control the trade in multi-coloured Chinese silks, blocked the route to prevent [the Romans] getting through [to China].
This was the very first time there was [direct] communication [between the two countries]. Each ten li 4. They [the vassal kingdoms of Da Qin] produce curious gems and so many other peculiar and bizarre things that I will not record what is reported.
To the east, it is 6, li 2, km from the seat of the Chief Scribe [in Lukchun], and 16, li 6, km from Luoyang. There are , households, , individuals, and more than , men able to bear arms.
Formerly, the Yuezhi were defeated by the Xiongnu. He set himself up as king of a kingdom called Guishuang Badakhsha n. He returned and defeated Tianzhu Northwestern India and installed a General to supervise and lead it.
The Yuezhi then became extremely rich. All the kingdoms call [their king] the Guishuang Kushan king, but the Han call them by their original name, Da Yuezhi.
Section 14 — The Kingdom of Gaofu Kabul. It is also a large kingdom. Their way of life is similar to that of Tianzhu Northwestern India , but they are weak and easy to subdue.
They are excellent traders and are very wealthy. They have not always been ruled by the same masters. Whenever one of the three kingdoms of Tianzhu Northwestern India , Jibin Kapisha-Peshawar , or Anxi Parthia became powerful, they took control of it; when weakened, they lost it.
Gaofu Kabul was never previously dependent on the Yuezhi. It was a dependency of Anxi Parthia. It was only after the Yuezhi defeated Anxi Parthia that they took Gaofu.
This kingdom is beside a great river [the Indus]. The people ride elephants into battle. They are weaker than the Yuezhi Kushans. They practice the Buddhist Way, not to kill, or wage war.
Juandu India has several hundred other towns. A Chief is placed in each town. There are scores of other kingdoms [in Juandu]. Each kingdom has its own king.
Although the kingdoms differ slightly, they are all still called Juandu India. Now they are all subject to the Yuezhi Kushans. The Yuezhi Kushans killed their kings and installed Generals to govern them.
This region produces elephants, rhinoceroses, turtle shell, gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, and tin. To the west, it communicates with Da Qin the Roman Empire.
During the reign of Emperor He [ CE ], they sent several envoys carrying tribute and offerings. Later, the Western Regions rebelled, and these relations were interrupted.
Then, during in the second and the fourth yanxi years in the reign of Emperor Huan [ and CE ], and frequently since, foreigners have arrived at the frontiers of Rinan Commandery south of Jiaozhi to present offerings.
There is a current tradition that Emperor Ming dreamed that he saw a tall golden man the top of whose head was glowing.
He questioned his group of advisors and one of them said: His body is sixteen chi high 3. Then Ying, the king of Zhu [a dependent kingdom which he ruled CE ], began to believe in this path [ c.
It is a big kingdom. Its products are similar to those of Tianzhu Northwestern India. There are several dozen major towns whose rulers take the title of king.
The Da Yuezhi attacked and subdued it. The men and women are all eight chi tall about 1. They ride elephants and camels when travelling to neighbouring kingdoms.
When invaded, they ride elephants to wage war. Section 17 — The Kingdom of Liyi Sogdiana. It produces famous horses, cattle, sheep, grapes, and all sorts of fruit.
The water and soil of this country are excellent, which is why its grape wine is so famous. Section 18 — The Kingdom of Yan.
It produces small animal pelts, which it uses to pay its tribute to that country Kangju. Section 19 — The Kingdom of Alanliao the Alans.
The climate is mild. Their way of life and dress are the same as those of Kangju. Section 20 — The Kingdom of Suoche Yarkand.
To the east, it is 10, li 4, km from Luoyang. Only Yan, the king of Suoche Yarkand , who was more powerful than the others, did not consent to being annexed.
Previously, during the time of Emperor Yuan [ BCE ], he had excelled in the service of the Emperor in the capital. He admired and loved the Middle Kingdom and extended the rules of Chinese administration to his own country.
He ordered all his sons to respectfully serve the Han dynasty throughout their lives, and to never turn their backs on it.
Yan died in the fifth tianfeng year [18 CE ]. His son, Kang, succeeded him on the throne. He escorted, and protected, more than a thousand people including the officers, the soldiers, the wife and children of the former Protector General.
In the ninth year [33 CE ] Kang died. Xian attacked and conquered the kingdoms of Jumi Keriya and Xiye Karghalik. He killed both their kings, and installed two sons of his elder brother, Kang, as the kings of Jumi and Xiye.
Following this, the Western Regions were again in communication with China. All the kingdoms to the east of the Congling Pamirs were dependent on Xian.
In the seventeenth year [41 CE ], Xian again sent an envoy to present offerings [to the Emperor], and to ask that a Protector General be appointed.
He was of the opinion that Xian, and his sons and brothers who had pledged to serve the Han were truly sincere. Therefore, [he suggested that] it would be appropriate to give him higher rank to maintain order and security.
Consequently, Xian became resentful. Xian gradually became arrogant making heavy demands for duties and taxes. Several times he attacked Qiuci Kucha and the other kingdoms.
All the kingdoms were anxious and fearful. In the winter of the twenty-first year [45 CE ], eighteen kings, including the king of Nearer Jushi Turfan , Shanshan the Lop Nor region , Yanqi Karashahr , and others, sent their sons to enter the service of the Emperor and offered treasure.
As a result, they were granted audience when they circulated weeping, prostrating with their foreheads to the ground, in the hope of obtaining a Protector General.
The Son of Heaven, considering that the Middle Kingdom was just beginning to return to peace and that the northern frontier regions were still unsettled, returned all the hostage princes with generous gifts.
At the same time, Xian, infatuated with his military power, wanted to annex the Western Regions, and greatly increased his attacks. The kingdoms, informed that no Protector General would be sent, and that the hostage princes were all returning, were very worried and frightened.
Therefore they sent a letter to the Governor of Dunhuang to ask him to detain their hostage sons with him, so that they could point this out to the [king of] Suoche Yarkand , and tell him that their young hostage sons were detained because a Protector General was to be sent.
Then he [the king of Yarkand] would stop his hostilities. Pei Zun sent an official report informing the Emperor [of this proposal], which he approved.
In the twenty-second year [46 CE ] Xian, aware that no Protector General was coming, sent a letter to An, king of Shanshan the Lop Nor region , ordering him to cut the route to the Han.
An did not accept [this order], and killed the envoy. Xian was furious and sent soldiers to attack Shanshan.
An gave battle but was defeated and fled into the mountains. Xian killed or captured more than a thousand men, and then withdrew. That winter [46 CE ], Xian returned and attacked Qiuci Kucha , killed the king, and annexed the kingdom.
The hostage princes of Shanshan, and then Yanqi Karashahr and the other kingdoms, were detained a long time at Dunhuang and became worried, so they fled and returned [to their kingdoms].
The king of Shanshan the Lop Nor region wrote a letter to the Emperor expressing his desire to return his son to enter the service of the Emperor, and again pleaded for a Protector General, saying that if a Protector General were not sent, he would be forced to obey the Xiongnu.
The Son of Heaven replied: Meanwhile, Xian became increasingly violent. Xian then attacked and killed him. He appointed a nobleman from that country, Si Jian, king of Guisai.
Xian, taking account of the youth of Ze Luo, detached a part of the territory from Qiuci Kucha from which he made the kingdom of Wulei Yengisar.
Several years later, the people of the kingdom of Qiuci Kucha , killed Ze Luo and Si Jian, and sent envoys to the Xiongnu to ask them to appoint a king to replace them.
Because Dayuan Ferghana stopped paying tribute and taxes, Xian personally took command of several tens of thousands of men taken from several kingdoms, and attacked Dayuan Ferghana.
Yan Liu, the king of Dayuan Ferghana , came before him to submit. Xian took advantage of this to take him back to his own kingdom.
Then Kangju Tashkent plus the Chu, Talas, and middle Jaxartes basins attacked him there several times and Qiao Saiti fled home [to Keriya] more than a year later.
Xian appointed him king of Jumi Keriya and sent Yan Liu back to Dayuan Ferghana , ordering him to bring the customary tribute and offerings.
More than a year later Xian became suspicious that the kingdoms wanted to rebel against him. Rong Wang, the son of Weishi, submitted to the Han, who named him: In the third yongping year [60 CE ], during the reign of Emperor Ming, a high official of this country, called Dumo, had left town when he saw a wild pig.
He wanted to shoot it, but the pig said to him: However, another high official, the usurper Xiu Mo, plotted, in his turn, with a Chinese man, Han Rong, and others, to kill Dumo and his brothers, then he named himself king of Yutian Khotan.
Together with men from the kingdom of Jumi Keriya , he attacked and killed the Suoche Yarkand general who was at Pishan modern Pishan or Guma. He then returned with the soldiers.
The usurper came to meet them and gave battle, defeating the soldiers of Suoche Yarkand who fled, and more than 10, of them were killed.
Xian again fielded several tens of thousands of men from several kingdoms, and personally led them to attack the usurper Xiu Mo.
The usurper was again victorious and beheaded more than half of the enemy. Xian escaped and fled, returning to his kingdom.
The usurper Xiu Mo advanced and encircled Suoche Yarkand , but he was hit and killed by an arrow, and his soldiers retreated to Yutian Khotan.
The Xiongnu, with Qiuci Kucha and the other kingdoms, attacked Suoche Yarkand , but were unable to take it. Xian sent a company of armoured troops as envoys to make peace with Guang De.
Guang De, the king of Yutian Khotan , then led 30, men from several kingdoms to attack Suoche Yarkand. Xian stayed in the town to defend it and sent a messenger to say to Guang De: Why are you attacking me?
It has been a long time since we met. I want us to meet, each of us escorted by only two men, outside the town wall to make an alliance.
Xian consulted Qie Yun about this. Qie Yun said to him: Guang De advanced and captured him. Guang De annexed his kingdom. He put Xian in chains, and took him home with him.
More than a year later, he killed him. Guang De asked to submit. Guang De again attacked and killed [the new king], and put his own son, Qi Li, on the throne.
It was then the third yuanhe year [86 CE ] of Emperor Zhang. While this was going on the Aide Ban Chao put the soldiers of several kingdoms on campaign to attack Suoche Yarkand.
He soundly defeated it. From this time on Suoche Yarkand was subject to the Han. These things have already been described in the biography of Ban Chao.
Section 21 — The Kingdom of Shule Kashgar. It controls 21, households, and has more than 30, men able to bear arms.
He appointed Zhong, the son of the elder brother of Cheng, to be king of Shule Kashgar. Ban Chao attacked and beheaded him. The king of the Yuezhi became very fond of him.
His mother directed the government of the kingdom. Chen Pan heard of this and appealed to the Yuezhi Kushan king, saying: The Yuezhi Kushans then sent soldiers to escort him back to Shule Kashgar.
The people had previously respected and been fond of Chen Pan. Besides, they dreaded the Yuezhi Kushans. They immediately took the seal and ribbon from Yi Fu and went to Chen Pan, and made him king.
Yi Fu was given the title of Marquis of the town of Pangao [90 li or 37 km from Shule]. Shule Kashgar thus became very powerful and hostile to Qiuci Kucha and Yutian Khotan , even attacking these kingdoms.
In the second yangjia year [ CE ], Chen Pan again made offerings including a lion and zebu cattle. He De named himself king.
They attacked the town of Zhenzhong but, having stayed for more than forty days without being able to subdue it, they withdrew.
Section 22 — The Kingdom of Yanqi Karashahr. It has 15, households, 52, individuals, and more than 20, men able to bear arms. It has high mountains on all four sides.
There are hazardous passes on the route to Qiuci Kucha that are easy to defend. The water of a lake winds between the four mountains, and surrounds the town for more than 30 li Yuan Meng sent his son then to the palace with offerings.
Section 23 — The Kingdom of Pulei transported from Barkol. On the southeast, it is 1, li km from the residence of the Aide [in Lukchun].
It has more than households, more than 2, individuals, and there are more than men able to bear arms. The people of this country live in tents. They tend to move about in search of water and pasture and cultivate some fields.
They have cattle, horses, camels, sheep, and other domestic animals. They know how to make bows and arrows.
This country produces good horses. Pulei was originally a large kingdom [near Lake Barkol] but when the Western Regions were subject to the Xiongnu, the king of Pulei offended the Chanyu.
The Chanyu was angry and had more than 6, people from Pulei deported to a place called the Awu region of the right [or western] section of the Xiongnu.
That is why this kingdom was called the kingdom of Awu. To the south it is more than 90 days ride by horse to the tribe of Further Jushi Jimasa.
Section 24 — The Kingdom of Yizhi Barkol. These people are brave and hardy in combat. Robbery and pillage are their normal occupations.
They all have dishevelled hair. They follow their flocks in search of water and pasture. They know nothing of agriculture. Their products are the same as those of Pulei Lake Barkol region.
Section 25 — The Kingdom of Eastern Qiemi. To the east of the Kingdom of Eastern Qiemi, it is li km to the residence of the Aide Lukchun.
There are more than 3, households, more than 5, individuals, and more than 2, men able to bear arms. The people live in tents. They go in search of water and pasture.
They farm a bit. The produce is the same as Pulei. Section 26 — The Kingdom of Nearer [i. It is 80 li 33 km from Liuzhong Lukchun , the residence of the Chief Scribe.
To the east it is 9, li 3, km to Luoyang. He [the king] controls more than 1, households, more than 4, individuals, and 2, men able to bear arms.
Section 27 — The Kingdom of Further [i. They have one child. August 17 , in Cairo, Egypt. View agent, publicist, legal on IMDbPro.
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